Sericulture is a process of the production of silk. Most of us well familiar with a word “Silk”.
It is a most elegant textile industry in the worldwide. Because of its lightweight, soft touch, high durability, and more absorbance qualities it becomes queen of the textile industry.
Mainly ladies are known more than men. Because they wearing silk thread based saris, dresses, bangles, and earrings (handmade).
As we know Silk is called as Queen of Fibres – Because of its lightweight, soft touch, high durability, and more absorbance qualities and it is coming from the silkworm.
The process of developing of silkworms is called Sericulture or silk cultivating.
In all of us, how many number of people know about it and how this silk comes from.
Despite the fact that there are a few business types of silkworms are there in the world. In that Bombyx Mori comes as first in the list.
Bombyx Mori is the caterpillar of the tamed silk moth. And it is most broadly utilized and seriously contemplated silkworm.
History of Silk cultivation:
There is no actual authentic information regarding the origin and use of silk.
Based on History of sericulture in India, Himalayas has first originated silk industry in India and from there it spread to all over the world.
As per archaeological records, the Silk was cultivated from fast Yanshao period (5000 to 3000BC).
After that, archaeological researchers do a lot of research and find that this silk was being used all over South Asian cities and countries.
In early Neolithic time, Chinese people used to, prior priority to, Silk cultivation rather than other products.
Now Sericulture has turned into a vital industry in nations like Japan, China, India, Korea, Brazil, Russia, France, and Italy.
At present, China and India are the two main production makers worldwide.
In total worlds annual silk production these two nations contribute more than 60%.
Steps in Sericulture Production Process:
The production methods of raw silk are generally having two stages.
- Conversion process i.e., Rising of larvae (caterpillars) from egg stage to cocoon stage
- Feeding process i.e., Silkworms are feeding on mulberry leaves, so production of mulberry trees is important at this stage.
- The Silkworm is having four phases in its life cycle – (1)Eggs (2) Larva (3) Pupa (inside cocoon) and Imago (last stage of insect)
After the fourth stage conversion, the silkworm caterpillar builds their cocoons with long circled or spin fluids like filaments.
Two large glands within the insect release those fluids. These fluids are having a length of approx. 600 to 900 meters.
These are unwinding or reeling.
So that, filaments collected from several cocoons at the same time to make a single strand yarn by using machines.
Why Sericulture famous in India?
In worldwide sericulture industry, India is the second largest country in production wise.
India is one of the nations to deliver all the five known business silks, like Oak Tasar, Tasar, Eri, Mulberry, and Muga. In all of this Moga having fine yellow sparkle is unique and prerogative of Indian nature.
Indians have treated sericulture is one of the finest industry in India because
(1)It is eco and women-friendly
(2)Low investment and High returns
(3)Having High employment potential
Sericulture is Eco and Women Friendly industry:
First thing is it is an agro-based industry. In Indian approx. 68% to till date depends upon agriculture.
Second, Mulberry is being a deep-rooted perennial plant. It can be raised in vacant lands also. It can be inter-cropped with other agro-based productions.
Third, Wastages in the silkworm can be recycled and used as inputs to land for next cultivation. So no wastages.
Last and most important is, women-friendly. More than 60% of sericulture activities can be done by women also. Those are garden maintain, mulberry leaves harvesting and silkworm rearing. These are crucial points in the sericulture industry.
Sericulture is a Low Investment and High Returns industry:
You may invest, excluding land rent cost and rearing arrangement space, 12 k to 15 k per acre of land for cultivating of mulberry and rearing of silk from the silkworm. So it is the most useful business for the middle class and BPL people.
Mulberry takes only 25 to 30 days duration to grow or ready for the feed. No need to plant again and again this mulberry trees. Because it will give leaves up to 10-15 years based on caretaking upon. So it is a one-time investment.
Based on leaves freshness and durable, one can crop and earn up to 50,000 to 1,00,000 per acre. Based on tropical conditions it may give five crops too per annum.
Market prices available at present:
As per the case study in 2015
The cost of mulberry cultivation
- Marginal farmers Rs. 23278 per acre
- Small farmer Rs. 25116 per acre
- Medium farmers Rs. 26358 per acre
The cost of cocoon production
- Medium farmers Rs. 50046 per acre,
- Small farmers Rs.55036 per acre
- Marginal farmers Rs. 59187 per acre
Market Retail price values
- Good quality cocoons (per kg) – Rs. 399/-
- Low Quality (Kg) – Rs. 90/-
- Mulberry crop Waste/ Fodder (Quintal) – Rs. 100
As per the case study in 2018
Market Retail price values
- Good Quality cocoons (per kg) – Rs. 420/- to Rs. 500/-
- Low Quality (Kg) – Rs. 280/- to Rs. 330/-
- Mulberry crop Waste/ Fodder (Quintal) – Rs. 180 to Rs. 260.
These rates vary from state to state. Every year these rates are increased by approx. 20 to 25%.
If you want more details about Sericulture you may check at
Sericulture silk board in India under Ministry of Textile at Website: http://www.csb.gov.in/